Vegans don't use animal products. This makes them more susceptible to developing nutritional deficiencies. That's because many plant foods don't contain some of the essential nutrients needed for the growth and maintenance of our bodies.
Vegans are at high risk of developing a deficiency for the following nutrients:
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin D
- Long-chain omega-3s
Therefore, vegans often need to take nutrient supplements with their diet.
In this article, we will tell you about nutritional deficiencies that affect vegans. We will also tell you about sources you can get these nutrients and the symptoms to look out for.
Are vegans in better health than non-vegans?
We are curious to know if a vegan diet is significantly better than a non-vegan diet. While a plant-based diet has its pros, it also has some cons. Therefore, we need more research to establish the effects of vegan foods.
Whether vegan diets are better than non-vegan diets has been debated for many years.
Veganism is a lifestyle that avoids all animal products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey. Instead, vegans choose to rely on a completely plant-based diet.
However, the health benefits of a vegan diet have been the subject of much research and discussion.
Health benefits of a plant-based diet
There are many health benefits of vegan diets. Eating your leafy greens can help you decrease the risk of the following diseases:
- Heart disease
- Colon cancer
- Prostate cancer
A well-planned vegan diet can provide all the essential nutrients the body needs. It can also lower the risk of certain health conditions. These include heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
Many plant-based foods are typically high in fiber, antioxidants, and phytochemicals. These are all beneficial for overall health. Vegan diets are also naturally low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Both of these are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
Moreover, animal-based foods contain saturated fats. Therefore, they can increase blood levels of cholesterol and sugar. This leads to many different problems, like heart disease and diabetes. Hence, cutting down on meat helps. Most vegans would get the health benefits of lower meat consumption.
A plant-based diet can also activate your sirtuins (SIRTs). SIRTs are enzymes in our body that are involved in aging. They were originally discovered in yeast. It was found that increasing the levels of SIRTs in yeast increased its lifespan by up to 70%.
Recent research in the longevity area has shown a great interest in sirtuins. Many researchers are investigating ways to increase the levels of SIRTs in our bodies. Scientific evidence suggests that increased levels of sirtuins in the human body can alleviate the symptoms of aging. It can also slow down biological aging.
Some naturally occurring compounds like curcumin can activate SIRTs in our bodies. Curcumin can be found in many vegan foods and is a main component of turmeric (read about our anti-inflammatory capsules with turmeric here).
Hence, scientists believe that a plant-based diet could slow down biological aging. This would reduce the risk of age-related diseases and disorders. However, more research is needed before we can make concrete dietary guidelines.
Health concerns of a vegan diet
There might be many benefits of plant foods. However, removing animal products from the diet can increase the risk of missing out on an essential nutrient.
Nutritional deficiencies are a serious concern for vegans. Many important nutrients cannot be obtained through a plant-based diet alone.
A poorly planned vegan diet may lead to nutrient deficiencies. This can include vitamin D deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, and mineral deficiencies, among others.
Vitamin B12 is a particularly important nutrient not naturally found in plant-based foods. It needs to be obtained through fortified foods or vitamin B12 supplements.
Iron from plant sources is more easily absorbed than iron from animal sources. Therefore, vegans may need to take iron supplements to maintain healthy mineral levels.
Calcium is also an important nutrient that vegans may be at risk of not getting enough of. Dairy products are a major source of calcium in the non-vegan diet. And since vegan diets don't include dairy products, they don't get enough calcium. They will need foods fortified with calcium.
Moreover, some research suggests that non-vegans have a lower risk of certain health conditions. This also includes heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Their diet cannot provide all the nutrients needed to maintain a healthy body.
Additionally, some research suggests that a diet with moderate animal products may provide even more health benefits than one which completely abstains. This includes improved immune function and a lower risk of cancers.
Overall, an individual's health depends on several factors. This includes their diet, lifestyle, genetics, and access to healthcare. A balanced and diverse diet is essential for good health.
However, it is important for vegans to carefully plan their diets and make sure they are getting all the nutrients they need. This can be achieved by eating a variety of plant-based foods.
They should include legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds in their diet. Vegans should also use fortified foods or supplements to ensure an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals.
Certain plant foods like soy milk are consumed by non-vegans as well. They adopt these vegan foods for ethical, environmental, or health reasons. Animal products and animal-based foods do pose a danger to the environment. Moreover, some people are strongly against killing animals for food or research.
Therefore, being vegan has much more to do with lifestyle choices than any scientific evidence claiming that vegan foods are healthier than animal-based foods.
Are vegans immune to nutrient deficiencies?
If anything, a vegan diet makes people very prone to nutritional deficiencies. That's because they can only get a few nutrients through a vegan diet alone.
The idea that vegans are immune to nutrient deficiencies is a common misconception. Only a well-planned vegan diet can provide all the essential nutrients the body needs. A poorly planned vegan diet can easily lead to nutrient deficiencies.
Vegans need to understand the importance of balancing their diets. This means incorporating various unusual foods in high quantities that to ensure they get all the necessary nutrients.
What nutrients do vegan diets lack?
Vegans are especially susceptible to nutritional deficiencies. A comparison between a vegan diet and a non-vegan diet found that even with fortified foods included, plant-based foods contained:
- 35% lower levels of vitamin B12
- 40% lower levels of total vitamin D
- 58% lower levels of beta carotene
- 21% lower levels of vitamin E
- 64% lower levels of ferritin (iron)
- 73% lower levels of EPA
- 62% lower levels of DHA
Vegans are at risk of deficiency in vitamins B12, B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin D. They also receive less protein, omega-3 fatty acids, and calcium. Moreover, their bodies also have low levels of trace elements iron, iodine, zinc, and selenium.
It's also important to note that there's no naturally-occurring vegan form of certain vitamins like B12 and vitamin A (not to be confused with beta carotene), and that found in a vegan diet comes from synthetic forms included in fortified foods which are not always ideal.
A well-planned vegan diet can provide all the essential nutrients the body needs. This would require the use of external supplements in addition to your food. Certain nutrients can be more challenging to obtain from a vegan diet.
Absence of vitamin B12 in vegan diets
Vitamin B12 is a particularly important nutrient for vegans. It is not naturally found in plant-based foods. Therefore, vegans need to get it from fortified foods or supplements.
Vitamin B12 is essential for the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. A deficiency can lead to a range of health problems. These can include anemia, neurological damage, and even permanent nerve damage.
Harder to obtain iron from a vegan diet alone
Iron is another nutrient that vegans may be at risk of not getting enough of. Iron from plant sources is known as non-heme iron. It is not as easily absorbed as iron from animal sources, known as heme iron.
This means that vegans need to consume more iron from plant-based sources to meet their needs. Good sources of non-heme iron for vegans include beans, lentils, tofu, and fortified breakfast cereals.
Challenging to meet calcium needs without using dairy products
Calcium is another important nutrient that vegans may be at risk of not getting enough of. Calcium is needed for the growth and maintenance of bones in our body. Dairy products are a major source of calcium in the non-vegan diet.
Good plant-based sources of calcium include fortified plant milk, tofu, and leafy green vegetables, such as kale and bok choy.
Other nutrients that are lacking in a vegan diet
Some other nutrients that can be deficient in a vegan diet include: omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and vitamin D.
Omega-3 fatty acids are important for heart health and brain function. They are typically found in high amounts in fatty fish. Good plant-based sources of omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseeds, chia seeds, and walnuts.
Zinc is important for the immune system and wound healing. Vegans can be at risk of a zinc deficiency if they don't plan their diets carefully. Good plant-based sources include whole grains, legumes, and nuts.
Vitamin D is important for bone health. It can be obtained easily through exposure to sunlight.
However, getting enough sunlight might be difficult in areas that typically experience cloudy, gray weather. Therefore, vegans in those parts of the world must rely on fortified foods, such as plant milk and breakfast cereals.
We understand that these nutrients may be more challenging to obtain from a vegan diet. However, they can still be obtained through careful planning and the inclusion of fortified foods or supplements.
A registered dietitian can help vegans design a balanced diet that meets their nutritional needs.
7 Supplements recommended for vegans
The supplements recommended for vegans would depend on their deficiencies. These supplements help to fortify plant-based foods. This allows vegans to receive the recommended amounts of different nutrients.
1. Vitamin B12
Getting enough vitamin B12 is extremely important for all vegans. The only sustainable way to maintain healthy levels of vitamin B12 levels in vegan diets is to use fortified foods or take vitamin B12 supplements.
Vitamin B12 is required for many different processes in our body. These include protein metabolism and the formation of red blood cells. These are the cells that carry oxygen around our bodies. Vitamin B12 is also required for the proper functioning of our nervous system.
Deficiencies in vitamin B12 can lead to several different problems. These include infertility, bone disorders, and heart diseases. The deficiency can also cause anemia and damage your nervous system. Therefore, vitamin B12 deficiency should not be taken lightly like any other nutritional deficiency.
The daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 is as follows:
- 2.4 mcg per day for healthy adults
- 2.6 mcg per day if you are pregnant
- 2.8 mcg per day when you are breastfeeding
There is a common misconception that carefully planning your vegan diet can help you avoid vitamin B12 deficiencies. People believe that eating the "right plant foods" in enough amounts can supply vitamin B12 to vegans. However, this is unfounded, and currently, scientific research does not support this idea.
Anyone can develop a deficiency of vitamin B12. However, studies have shown that vegans and vegetarians are disproportionately affected by vitamin B12 deficiencies.
This risk becomes even more pronounced when vegans are not taking vitamin B12 supplements or eating fortified foods.
Currently, the only scientifically-approved way of getting enough vitamin B12 for vegans is to use supplements or fortified food. You can get B12 from different sources, like fortified plant milk and soy products supplemented with B12. Some breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast can also contain vitamin B12.
People believe that some vegan-friendly foods are rich in vitamin B12. These include unwashed organic produce that's grown in vitamin B12-rich soil. It also includes mushrooms, spirulina, nutritional yeast, chlorella, and nori. However, the scientific community is yet to back these claims.
Currently, there's a debate among scientists over B12. They need to find out whether vitamin B12 acquired through a plant-based diet is even bioactive in humans. This means that even though you might get vitamin B12 from plant foods, it won't work in your body.
Furthermore, no science-backed data suggests or supports the claim that unwashed organic produce can provide vitamin B12. Nutritional yeast can only be a reliable source of vitamin B12 when it is fortified.
However, B12 is photosensitive. This means that light can react with vitamin B12 and change its properties. Hence, if you buy B12 from a store in clear packaging, it can get destroyed.
B12 also poses another challenge. Our body's optimal absorption occurs when consumed in small doses. Thus, if you take the vitamin infrequently, you will need to take more of it.
That's one of the reasons why vegans struggle with maintaining healthy levels of vitamin B12 through plant foods. They need a daily consumption of 25–100 mcg of B12 (possibly more), which is difficult to obtain if you don't take supplements.
You can also take small doses more frequently, and the great thing about B12 is that you can't overdose- the excess is excreted in the urine. Fortunately, these organic B12 drops can help you get your B12 levels up.
Moreover, our body's ability to assimilate vitamin B12 reduces as we grow older. Therefore, people over 51 are recommended to take fortified foods. Whether vegan or not, you must take vitamin B12 supplements after 50.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with many different symptoms. Some of them are as follows:
- Loss of appetite
- Blurred vision
- Numbness and sensation of tingling in hands and feet
- Digestive problems
- Feeling lightheaded or weak
- Mood swings
- Memory loss
Suppose you are on a vegan diet and experience one of the above. In that case, any of the symptoms above can likely be due to vitamin B12 deficiency. However, speaking to a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis would be best.
2. Vitamin D
Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem for people who are vegans or omnivores. Vegans find it especially hard to maintain normal vitamin D levels in their blood. Therefore, they should take supplements or fortified foods. This is especially true if they live in areas where they don't get enough sunlight.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin required to absorb calcium in our body. Without it, calcium and phosphorus aren't absorbed properly. As a result, it can affect the growth and maintenance of the bones in your body.
Vitamin D also plays an important role in several other body functions. It is needed for immune function, boosting our mood, memory, and muscle recovery.
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin D is as follows:
- 600 IU (15 mcg) for children or adults every day.
- 800 IU (20 mcg) per day is needed for pregnant or lactating women. It is also the recommended daily intake for the elderly.
However, some studies suggest that our daily need for vitamin D might greatly surpass the current RDA.
There are very few sources of naturally occurring vitamin D. Moreover, even fortified foods are often considered inadequate. This explains why vitamin D deficiency is widespread among vegans and non-vegans. However, vegans are still at a higher risk of developing the deficiency.
Getting vitamin D from the sun seems the easiest way to ensure a healthy supply of nutrients. However, it has its challenges. Current research suggests that spending 15 minutes in the sun should be enough to give you vitamin D. This is the midday sun (10 A.M. to 3 P.M.) when the sun is at its brightest.
But getting vitamin D from sunlight requires you to go into the sun without sunscreen and expose most of your skin. This can be not only dangerous but also not feasible for most people.
UV rays in sunlight can damage our skin and immune system. Moreover, they can also cause cancer. Therefore, many dermatologists warn against solely relying on sun exposure for vitamin D production.
Plus, the elderly or those with darker skin might not get enough vitamin D from just 15 minutes of exposure. Moreover, people who live in northern parts of the world are also likely to fall short of their daily recommended vitamin D intake.
Moreover, foods fortified with vitamin D can't meet the recommended amounts. Therefore, vitamin D supplement is the only way to get enough of it.
If you are vegan, you can try vegan vitamins like vitamin D3 supplements. Some studies suggest that D3 might be more efficient at raising vitamin D levels in our body than D2. Here are some organic D3 capsules that you can use.
Therefore, vitamin D supplements should be included in every vegan diet.
The symptoms associated with a deficiency of vitamin D are as follows:
- Bone pain
- Weakness, cramps, or aches in your muscles
- Unexplained mood changes and depression
If you experience any of the symptoms above, please get in touch with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis. They can also prescribe the most effective strategies for improving your vitamin D levels.
Vegans can get enough iron from their diet, but it's harder than non-vegan diets. If you are not receiving adequate iron from your vegan diet, you should get fortified foods or take an iron supplement.
Iron is a central mineral required for many different processes in our body. It is used to make new DNA and produce red blood cells. Moreover, once the red blood cells have been produced, iron combines with them and helps them carry oxygen all over the body. It is also required for proper energy metabolism.
The RDA for iron is as follows:
- 8 mg every day for post-menopausal women and adult men
- 18 mg every day for adult women
- 27 mg for pregnant women every day
Iron naturally occurs in two different forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is usually found in animal products. On the other hand, non-heme iron is the iron that we get from plant foods.
Our body more efficiently metabolizes heme iron. It gets readily absorbed from our diet. Therefore, non-vegans have a lower risk of developing iron deficiencies.
On the other hand, a vegan diet can only provide non-heme iron. It is more readily absorbed than heme iron. Therefore, vegans must take over 1.8 times the recommended daily iron intake. However, more scientific evidence is needed to establish whether this is true.
Many iron-rich foods can be incorporated into a vegan diet. These include cruciferous vegetables and peas. Beans, dried fruits, nuts, and seeds also contain high iron levels. You can also eat fortified cereals, bread, or milk.
Some other ways to boost iron include using cast iron pots and pans for cooking your meals. It also helps if you don't take tea or coffee with your meals. Taking vitamin C-rich foods also helps with iron absorption.
Not enough iron in your body can cause symptoms like anemia and fatigue. It can also weaken your immune function. Some of the symptoms of iron deficiency are as follows:
- Hands and feet remain cold
- Feeling dizzy or even lightheaded
- Pain in your chest
- Shortness of breath
- Thin and brittle nails
- Cravings for eating things that aren't food, like dirt or ice
However, make sure you are taking only a little iron. Raising irons to an unnaturally high level can harm your body. It can damage the cells and block the absorption of other minerals our bodies need.
Extremely high levels of iron can lead to even more severe problems. You can experience convulsions and even go into a coma. Severe cases have reported organ failure and even fatalities. Therefore, unchecked iron supplements should be avoided.
The best way to determine whether you need iron supplements is to check your hemoglobin and ferritin levels. Your healthcare provider can determine if you need iron supplements based on the results.
4. Long-chain omega-3s
Vegans often have low levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, they should take EPA and DHA supplements.
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids occur in two different forms:
- Essential omega-3 fatty acids: These are the fatty acids that you can only get from your diet. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the only one in this category.
- Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: These are the fatty acids that our bodies can produce. It includes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for many important functions in our body. They play a critical role in our brains and eyes.
Physiologically adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids are required for brain development. Lower levels seem to increase the risk of inflammation, depression, and breast cancer. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids are also associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The RDA for omega-3 fatty acids is as follows:
- 500 mg of EPA and DHA combined every day
- 1.6 g of ALA for adult men
- 1.1 g of ALA for adult women
Some plants contain high levels of ALA. These include soybeans, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, and flax seeds. However, non-essential fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are usually only present in animal products. These include fatty fish or oil extracted from fish.
Theoretically, vegans can get enough EPA and DHA by consuming adequate ALA. However, some studies suggest that only 5-10% of dietary ALA gets converted to EPA. At the same time, the conversion efficiency for DHA is even lower at 2-5%.
Moreover, many studies have shown that vegans and vegetarians tend to have lower levels of EPA and DHA. The number is as low as over 50% compared to people who are omnivores.
Therefore, vegans can supplement their diet with EPA and DHA supplements or algae oil. You can also reduce your intake of omega-6 fatty acids. They are found in oil from corn, sesame, sunflower, or safflower. This should help improve your body's levels of EPA and DHA.
A deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids can cause several problems in your body. These include:
- Dry, itchy skin
- Increase in acne
- Dry eyes
- Problems with vision
- Pain in joints (or joints feeling stiffer)
- Thinning or dryness in hair
Talk to your healthcare provider if you notice any of the symptoms above and suspect it's because of a deficiency. They can diagnose properly and recommend the best route for alleviating symptoms. This can be either through vegan vitamin supplements or dietary changes.
Vegans can increase the amount of zinc in their bodies by planning their diet better. This means you should include zinc-rich foods. If that doesn't help, you can take zinc supplements.
Zinc is essential for maintaining my important biological functions. It is required for optimal metabolism, a strong immune function, and the repair of worn-out cells in our body.
The RDA for zinc is as follows:
- 8–11 mg per day for adults
- 11–12 mg for pregnant women
- 12–13 mg for lactating women
There are only a few zinc-rich foods that vegans can use. Vegans should incorporate wheat germ, sprouted bread, whole grains, tofu, nuts, seeds, and legumes. These are all rich in zinc.
It also helps if you soak some of these things overnight. Soaked seeds, nuts, and legumes can boost zinc absorption in our bodies. It also helps if you eat fermented foods. These include miso and tempeh. Getting enough protein also improves zinc absorption in our bodies.
However, plant-based zinc is not properly absorbed by our bodies. That's because of the presence of phytate in plant foods. It interferes with the assimilation of zinc in our bodies. As a result, vegans are often advised to take around 1.5 times the recommended zinc intake daily. It would help if you used these organic zinc drops.
Although not every vegan has a zinc deficiency, they are still at risk. Recent findings have revealed that vegetarians have lower zinc intake and blood levels than omnivores. Moreover, vegans are especially affected by it.
Not getting enough zinc from your diet can cause zinc deficiency. This can lead to many different developmental problems. It can also cause hair loss and delay wound healing. You might also develop diarrhea as a result of zinc deficiency.
Some of the symptoms of zinc deficiency are as follows:
- Slow growth
- Impaired immune function
- Skin lesions
- Hair loss
- Delayed healing of wounds
- Taste abnormalities
Suppose you have any of the symptoms listed above. Try taking zinc picolinate or bisglycinate supplements daily to see if it improves. These supplements provide 50-100% of the amount of zinc required by our body.
However, if the symptoms don't improve, it's best to consult a healthcare provider. They can make a more informed decision on how to treat your symptoms.
Vegans are at a higher risk of developing calcium deficiency than omnivores. The major source of calcium for omnivores is dairy products, and a vegan diet lacks them. You must start taking a calcium supplement if you get less than 525 mg daily.
Calcium is crucial for teeth and bone health. Moreover, it is involved in the functioning of muscles as well. It also plays a significant role in cardiac health and the functioning of the nervous system.
The current RDA for calcium is as follows:
- 1,000 mg per day for adults
- 1,200 mg per day for people over the age of 50
Vegans can get calcium from several different plant sources. These include kale, turnip greens, bok choy, mustard greens, watercress, chickpeas, broccoli, calcium-set tofu, and fortified foods.
However, many studies have shown that most vegans are not getting the amount of calcium their bodies need. This is also fueled by the fact that there are some misconceptions about a meat-rich diet.
The vegan community often claims that vegans don't need as much calcium as omnivores. They argue that the metabolism of meat produces acidity and that calcium is needed to neutralize it. However, vegans don't eat meat, so they don't need as much calcium.
Currently, there's no scientific evidence that concretely supports these claims. We need more research to determine how not eating meat affects our bodies' required calcium. But there is evidence that vegans who don't get enough calcium are at higher risk of fractures.
Therefore, vegans are often advised to take at least 525 mg of calcium every day.
There are many symptoms associated with a calcium deficiency. Some of them are as follows:
- Memory loss
- A sensation of numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, and face
- Muscle cramps
- Thin, brittle nails
- Easily fractured bones
If you notice any of the above, try eating calcium-rich foods like calcium-set tofu or take vegan supplements. Often even consuming calcium or taking a supplement isn't enough - a vitamin D deficiency is often the root cause and this should be addressed first.
However, you should talk to your healthcare provider if it still doesn't alleviate your symptoms. They will be able to help boost calcium absorption in your body.
Iodine plays a critical role in thyroid health and metabolism. If you are facing a deficiency, you can try consuming iodine-rich food. This includes seaweed and iodized salt. However, if that doesn't help, you should take an iodine supplement.
Iodine is required to maintain the healthy functioning of our thyroid gland. This gland is responsible for maintaining our metabolism. Therefore, iodine deficiency can affect our metabolism. This, in turn, can affect many different processes in our bodies.
Presently, the RDA for iodine is as follows:
- 150 mcg of iodine per day for adults
- 220 mcg per day for pregnant women
- 290 mcg per day for women who are breastfeeding
Iodine deficiencies can be especially terrible during early life. Iodine deficiency during infancy or pregnancy can cause irreparable brain damage by hindering brain development.
Vegans are consistently considered to be at a high risk of developing an iodine deficiency. Research suggests that vegans tend to have over 50% lower levels of iodine in their bodies compared to vegetarians.
The levels of iodine in plant-based diets depend upon the iodine content of the soil where the plants are grown. Plants grown close to the ocean often have higher levels of iodine.
Vegans are advised to use iodized salt in their diet. Even half a teaspoon can help vegans meet their daily needs. Half a teaspoon of iodized salt is equivalent to about 2.5 ml.
They should also use seaweed, dairy products, and seaweed. Dairy products can acquire iodine from different compounds used to clean cows.
However, if you don't want to take iodized salt or use seaweed, you need to start taking an iodine supplement. This will help in raising blood levels of iodine.
In adults, low levels of iodine can cause hypothyroidism.
There are many different symptoms associated with iodine deficiency. Some of them are as follows:
- Swollen neck
- Weight gain
- Hair loss
- Dry skin
- Feeling cold
- Slowed down the heart rate
- Difficulties in learning
- Heavy or irregular menstrual flow
If you notice any of the symptoms above, it might be due to an iodine deficiency. However, it would help if you spoke to your healthcare provider about them. They could tell you more about how to supplement your diet with iodine.
Takeaway: Being a vegan shouldn't cost you your health
A vegan diet has its benefits but also makes you prone to developing deficiencies. The best way to correct these deficiencies is to take supplements.
If you are worried about taking supplements, you don't have to be afraid. Why Not Natural has completely natural supplements for fighting your nutritional deficiencies.